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You have just come off the telephone to your regional cardiothoracic centre after discussing transferring your patient who is a 75-year-old man with a proven Type A aortic dissection. They explain that they will need to check their ITU bed state and get back to you.
The nurse looking after the patient informs you that he is in pain and his blood pressure has continued to rise and is now 180/100.
Which of the following treatment options would be appropriate? (Select all that apply)
Just as you were about to commence the labetalol the patient suddenly deteriorates. He is still able to talk but is drowsy, he is now shocked with a pulse rate of 120/min and has a BP of 70/40.
What are two potential reasons for this deterioration?