Gastroenteritis in Children under 5 years of age

Author: Richard Freeman / Editor: Claire Onyon / Reviewer: Thomas MacMahon, Richard Freeman / Codes: Published: 09/07/2021

Description:

Describing the natural history and aetiology of paediatric gastroenteritis

After completing this session you will be able to:

  • Describe the natural history and aetiology of paediatric gastroenteritis
  • Assess the child’s level of dehydration and exclude common differential diagnoses
  • Manage cases where the child is not dehydrated, clinically dehydrated and clinically shocked
  • Suspect and manage cases of hypernatraemic dehydration
  • Consider the use of antibiotics and ondansetron in certain situations
  • Provide appropriate advice to ensure children remain hydrated and limit the spread of infection within the community

References:

  1. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, Diarrhoea and vomiting caused by gastroenteritis in under 5s: diagnosis and management. Clinical guideline [CG84]. 2009.
  2. Guarino, A., et al., European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition/European Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute gastroenteritis in children in Europe: update 2014. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 2014. 59(1): p. 132-52.
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  12. Steiner MJ, DeWalt DA, Byerley JS. Is this child dehydrated? JAMA. 2004 Jun 9;291(22):2746-54.
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  14. Freedman, SB, et al., Gastroenteritis Therapies in Developed Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS One, 2015. 10(6): p. e0128754.
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  18. Shane AL, Mody RK, et al., 2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Infectious Diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Nov 29;65(12):e45-e80.

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