What are the risk factors for developing PID?

Risk factors for PID are:

  • Young age
    • In general practice, PID is most common in women aged 20-24 years, but incidence has been falling in this demographic group. The most common cause is a sexually transmitted infection.
    • In the hospital setting, PID is most common in women aged 35-44 years and incidence is relatively stable in this group. The causative organism is less likely to be sexually transmitted.
  • Multiple sexual partners
  • New recent sexual partner(s) in the last 3 months
  • History of sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the patient or their partner(s)
  • Not using barrier contraception
  • Recent gynaecological procedures which cause disruption of the endocervical barrier and translocate bacteria into the upper genital tract such as:
    • termination of pregnancy
    • intrauterine device (IUD) insertion in the last 4-6wks
    • in vitro fertilisation3