Author: Joydeep Grover / Editor: Jason M Kendall / Reviewer: Jennifer Lockwood / Codes:  / Published: 07/07/2023

This session describes the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of endocarditis.

After completing this session you will be able to

  • Describe the pathophysiology of endocarditis
  • Evaluate a patient’s predisposition to endocarditis
  • Plan a diagnostic strategy for a patient with possible endocarditis
  • Discuss complications and their management
  • Recognise common pitfalls and complexities in management


  1. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prophylaxis against infective endocarditis: antimicrobial prophylaxis against infective endocarditis in adults and children undergoing interventional procedures. NICE guideline [CG64]. 2008. Updated in 2016.
  2. Karchmer AW. Infective Endocarditis. In: Jameson J, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Loscalzo J. (eds.) Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 20e. McGraw Hill; 2018. [Accessed July 11, 2022].
  3. Li JS, Sexton DJ, Mick N, Nettles R, et al., Proposed modifications to the Duke criteria for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Apr;30(4):633-8.
  4. Durack DT (ed): Infective Endocarditis. Infectious Disease Clinic North America. 2002; 16:255
  5. Olaison L, Pettersson G. Current best practices and guidelines indications for surgical intervention in infective endocarditis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2002 Jun;16(2):453-75, xi.
  6. Shively BK, Gurule FT, Roldan CA, et al., Diagnostic value of transesophageal compared with transthoracic echocardiography in infective endocarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1991 Aug;18(2):391-7.

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